Myopia, Hyperopia, Presbyopia, & Astigmatism



Myopia is the medical term for the condition known as nearsightedness. As the name implies, people who are nearsighted can easily see objects that are near to them, but struggle with objects that are far away. Myopia affects people from all walks of life and of all ages.

What causes myopia?

Nearsightedness itself is caused by a refractive error in the eyes. This refers to the refraction of light that is the cornerstone of healthy vision. In a case of myopia, the light that would normally be focused on the retina directly, instead lands in front it.

It isn’t currently known why some people develop myopia and others do not. However, certain risk factors increase a person’s likeliness of being nearsighted:

  • Family history
  • Heavy amounts of up-close reading or work over a lifetime

What are the symptoms of myopia?

Common symptoms of myopia include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Headaches from eyestrain
  • Frequent squinting
  • Double vision
  • Trouble seeing at night
  • Difficulty driving or navigating

Treating myopia

Myopia is very treatable, with nearly every person diagnosed with the condition receiving a measurable improvement in vision. Common types of myopia treatment include:

  • Prescription eyeglasses
  • Contact Lenses
  • LASIK Surgery
  • Refractive Eye Surgery
  • Intraocular lens implants (IOLs)



Hyperopia is the medical term for the common eye condition known as farsightedness. Those who deal with hyperopia have difficulty seeing things that are near to them, but have better vision for objects that are far away.

What causes hyperopia?

The actual farsightedness associated with hyperopia stems from a refractive error in the eye. In a healthy eye, the lens and cornea bend light evenly, providing clear vision. This is known as refraction. When suffering from hyperopia, however, the lens or cornea is out of place or insufficiently curved, leading to reduced vision quality.

For most people, the cause of hyperopia is genetic - the condition is usually inherited.  Scientifically, it is not currently known why some families suffer from farsightedness and others do not.

What are the symptoms of hyperopia?

People who are farsighted typically have symptoms such as:

  • Blurry vision
  • Squinting
  • Eyestrain
  • Itchy, burning eyes

Treating hyperopia

Farsightedness is one of the most common eye-health problems in the world. Because of that, many treatment options are available.

  • Prescription eyeglasses
  • Prescription contact lenses
  • Refractive surgery



Parts of eyes are curved in order to aid with focus and the refraction of light. This primarily happens through the cornea the outermost part of the eyeball. However, for various reasons, the cornea may not be perfectly curved. This leads to blurry vision and the condition known as astigmatism. Astigmatism is one of the most common eye health problems worldwide.

What are the symptoms of astigmatism?

Common signs or symptoms of astigmatism include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Distorted vision
  • Eyestrain
  • Headaches
  • Squinting

Treating astigmatism

Treatment for astigmatism begins with a thorough eye exam. Most cases of astigmatism are detected in childhood, although it is possible to develop the condition later in life. As with myopia and hyperopia many treatment options are available.

  • Prescription eyeglasses
  • Prescription contact lenses
  • PRK
  • Refractive surgery


What is presbyopia

Presbyopia (which literally means "aging eye") is an age-related eye condition that makes it more difficult to see up close. Presbyopia is a symptom caused by the natural course of aging, not a disease. Presbyopia differs from myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism, which are related to the shape of the eyeball and are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Unlike these commonly known eye disorders, presbyopia is simply a symptom of aging and eventually affects every individual.

What are they symptons of presbyopia?

The first signs of presbyopia are usually noticed between the ages of 40 and 50, and can include:

  • Difficulty focusing on fine print and/or small objects (particularly in low light)
  • The need to hold reading materials further away in order to focus
  • Eyestrain when reading for long periods
  • Momentary blurred vision when transitioning between viewing distances.

Treating presbyopia

  • Reading glasses
  • Refractive Surgery
  • Multifocal contact lenses

Presbyopia Correction Clinical Research Trial

Dr. James Katz coordinated with Refocus Group in its clinical studies to determine if the VisAbility? Implant System (VIS) Procedure and the VisAbility? Implant will eliminate the need for corrective eyewear arising from presbyopia. This System is investigational and is awaiting approved by the FDA. Follow the link below for more information.

Study Image
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